# Mathematics

## Curriculum

## Foundation

By the end of Foundation, students make connections between number names, numerals and position in the sequence of numbers from zero to at least 20. They use subitising and counting strategies to quantify collections. Students compare the size of collections to at least 20. They partition and combine collections up to 10 in different ways, representing these with numbers. Students represent practical situations, including simple financial situations involving money, that involve quantifying, equal sharing, adding to and taking away from collections to at least 10.

Students represent, continue and create simple repeating patterns.

Students identify the...

## Content descriptions – Foundation

## Level 1

By the end of Level 1, students connect number names, numerals and quantities, and order numbers to at least 120. They demonstrate how one- and two-digit numbers can be partitioned in different ways and that two-digit numbers can be partitioned into tens and ones. Students partition collections into equal groups and skip count in twos, fives or tens to quantify collections to at least 120. They solve problems involving addition and subtraction of numbers to 20 and use mathematical modelling to solve practical problems involving addition, subtraction, equal sharing and grouping, using calculation strategies.

Students use...

## Content descriptions – Level 1

## Level 2

By the end of Level 2, students order and represent numbers to at least 1000; apply knowledge of place value to partition, rearrange and rename two- and three-digit numbers in terms of their parts; and regroup partitioned numbers to assist in calculations. They use mathematical modelling to solve practical additive and multiplicative problems, including money transactions, representing the situation and choosing calculation strategies. Students identify and represent part-whole relationships of halves, quarters and eighths in measurement contexts.

Students describe and continue patterns that increase and decrease additively by a constant amount and identify missing elements in...

## Content descriptions – Level 2

## Level 3

By the end of Level 3, students order and represent natural numbers beyond 10 000, classify numbers as either odd or even, and use the properties of odd and even numbers. They partition, rearrange and regroup two- and three-digit numbers in different ways to assist in calculations. Students extend and use single-digit addition and related subtraction facts and apply additive strategies to model and solve problems involving two- and three-digit numbers. They use a range of strategies to apply mathematical modelling to solve practical problems involving single-digit multiplication and division, recalling multiplication facts for twos, threes, fours,...

## Content descriptions – Level 3

## Level 4

By the end of Level 4, students use their understanding of place value to represent tenths and hundredths in decimal form and to multiply natural numbers by multiples of 10. Students use mathematical modelling to solve financial and other practical problems, formulating the problem using number sentences, solving the problem choosing efficient strategies and interpreting the results in terms of the situation. They use their proficiency with addition, subtraction, multiplication facts for tens (× 10) and related division facts to perform arithmetic operations to add and subtract, and multiply and divide numbers efficiently. They choose rounding and...

## Content descriptions – Level 4

## Level 5

By the end of Level 5, students use place value to write and order decimals including decimals greater than one. They express natural numbers as products of factors and identify multiples and divisors. Students order and represent, add and subtract fractions with the same or related denominators. They represent common percentages and connect them to their fraction and decimal equivalents. Students use their proficiency with multiplication facts and efficient mental and written calculation strategies to multiply large numbers by one- and two-digit numbers and divide by one-digit numbers. They check the reasonableness of their calculations using estimation....

## Content descriptions – Level 5

## Level 6

By the end of Level 6, students use integers to represent points on a number line and on the Cartesian plane. They solve problems using the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers. Students order common fractions, giving reasons, and add and subtract fractions with related denominators. They use all 4 operations with decimals and connect decimal representations of measurements to the metric system. Students solve problems involving finding a fraction, decimal or percentage of a quantity and use estimation to find approximate solutions to problems involving rational numbers and percentages. They use mathematical modelling to...

## Content descriptions – Level 6

## Level 7

By the end of Level 7, students represent natural numbers in expanded form and as products of prime factors, using exponent notation. They solve problems involving squares of numbers and square roots of perfect square numbers. Students solve problems involving addition and subtraction of integers. They use all 4 operations in calculations involving positive fractions and decimals, choosing efficient mental and written calculation strategies. Students choose between equivalent representations of rational numbers and percentages to assist in calculations and make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. They use mathematical modelling to solve practical problems involving...

## Content descriptions – Level 7

## Level 8

By the end of Level 8, students recognise irrational numbers as numbers that cannot develop from the division of integer values by natural numbers and terminating or recurring decimals. They apply the exponent laws to calculations with numbers involving positive integer exponents. Students solve problems involving the 4 operations with integers and positive rational numbers. They use mathematical modelling to solve practical problems involving ratios, percentages and rates in measurement and financial contexts.

Students apply algebraic properties to simplify, rearrange, expand and factorise linear expressions. They graph linear relations and solve linear equations with rational solutions...

## Content descriptions – Level 8

## Level 9

By the end of Level 9, students recognise and use rational and irrational numbers to solve problems.

Students extend and apply the exponent laws with positive integers and the zero exponent to variables. They expand binomial products and factorise monic quadratic expressions. They find the distance between 2 points on the Cartesian plane, sketch linear graphs and find the gradient and midpoint of a line segment. Students use mathematical modelling to solve problems involving change, including simple interest in financial contexts and change in other applied contexts, choosing to use linear and quadratic functions. They graph...

## Content descriptions – Level 9

## Level 10

By the end of Level 10, students recognise the effect of approximations of real numbers in repeated calculations.

Students use mathematical modelling to solve problems involving growth and decay in financial and other applied situations, applying linear, quadratic and exponential functions as appropriate, and solve related equations, numerically and graphically. They make and test conjectures involving functions and relations using digital tools. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear and quadratic algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital tools. They solve...